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Akbar Shashkov
Akbar Shashkov

Transport Processes And Unit Operations Solution Manual


The Supply Chain Cloud - Transport for Microsoft Dynamics 365 for Finance and Supply Chain is a single solution that streamlines the transportation planning, execution, rating, routing, settlement, freight reconciliation, and financials across the enterprise for transportation providers.




Transport Processes And Unit Operations Solution Manual



Increasing aquifers' recharge and storage is of great importance in addressing challenges posed by climate change and growing water demand. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) technologies may ensure water supply for agriculture and diminish impacts from groundwater overexploitation. The expansion of MAR solutions in Europe still requires the implementation of these waterworks at their maximum efficiency. Physical clogging is one of the main bottlenecks for these technologies. In spreading methods, during water recharge, eroded clays from surface runoff reach the infiltrating surface and intrude into the soil matrix, decreasing the basin infiltration capacity over time. The resulting loss in performance increases the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and, in extreme cases, can lead to the MAR site's abandonment. Thus, it is vital to assess the risk of physical clogging during the MAR planning phase, extending the MAR scheme lifespan and minimising O&M costs. Our study aims to develop a comprehensive model for physical clogging transferable to multiple MAR sites, based on the characterisation of the sediment matrix and MAR operations. To achieve this, we built a semi-empirical 1D numerical model for physical clogging. Evolution in soil permeability via the Kozeny-Carman equation is computed in function of depth based on the input of fines into the soil matrix and the porous media characteristics. The vertical distribution of fines is derived through a general relationship from a systematic review of multiple studies in the literature. The model allows computing the evolution in infiltration rates over time for the MAR site and the depth of soil to be treated to restore infiltration efficiency. Preliminary validation at the field scale is conducted at a MAR infiltration basin in Suvereto, Italy. To spatially apply the model, zoning is performed through an electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey, defining areas with similar soil properties. Values of hydraulic conductivity near saturation and soil samples were collected to characterise the sediment matrix and fines content for the entire basin. Predictions of the expected decrease in infiltration capacity for spreading methods assists maintenance scheduling and reduce O&M costs for the specific site. The proposed model for physical clogging can serve as a tool for decision support when exploring a set of design alternatives prior to MAR construction.


Metolachlor, terbuthylazine, nicosulfuron and prosulfuron are among the typical crop protection products used on maize plantations. Leaching of those lead to a decrease of groundwater and surface water quality. Often measured individual pesticides and their metabolite concentrations in drinking water are exceeding the limit established by the European Council in drinking water. In our work we investigate contamination potential of these four herbicides to groundwater bodies using lysimeter studies and numerical modelling with HYDRUS-1D. The four herbicides were applied at specific times in the vegetation phase over a period of three years on two lysimeters located in Wielenbach, Germany. The studied lysimeters contain soil cores dominated by sandy gravel (Ly1) and clayey sandy silt (Ly2) and are both vegetated with maize. To identify governing transport and fate processes in the unsaturated zone of the lysimeters and determining dynamics and rates of these, different model structural approaches were compared. In a first step we have characterized soil hydraulic and transport parameters of each soil core by investigating stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). For Ly2, model performance was improved by considering immobile water in a dual-porosity approach whereas for Ly1 a single-porosity approached seemed to yield satisfying results. This might be explained by a higher fraction of fine particles in Ly2 which can be available for water storage. Based on these findings reactive transport parameters were fitted also for root water and chemical plant uptake, sorption, and biodegradation.


Spent fuel (SF) produced in the nuclear industry, requires long term disposal solutions for 105-106 years, to allow its decay in an isolated setting as means to reduce the environmental threat of radioactive contamination. The feasibility of locating SF repository within a fractured carbonate formation as the host rock in the unsaturated zone, requires better understating of radionuclide transport patterns under these specific conditions. An innovative system was developed to simulate conditions of unsaturated flow and transport in fractured chalk. The system consists of an artificially fractured chalk core, situated in a flow cell, which lays on top of a ceramic membrane. The membrane separates it from a lower sealed cell where constant negative pressure is forced. Subsequently, a pressure gradient along the rock core is being developed. The system is placed on a scale in order to monitor the degree of saturation in the core throughout the experiment. Uranine fluorescent dye is used as a conservative tracer to investigate the impact of: (1) the initial degree of saturation; (2) fracture aperture; and (3) flow rate, on the transport and recovery of conservative contaminants. Preliminary results show that a conservative tracer migrates faster through the fracture when the matrix is initially nearly saturated (s=99%) than when the matrix is undersaturated (s=75%). These results will be used for comparison with radionuclide and radionuclide-simulants transport in current studies.


To assess these processes, we constructed a high-resolution monitoring station at an agricultural site featuring sensors and sampling facilities for analyzing hydraulics and hydrogeochemistry in the vadose zone and shallow groundwater. Monitoring has been performed for over two years during which different types of crops such as dill, spinach, wheat, and sunflower have been grown on the site. Observed variations of the oxidation-reduction potential over time and depth confirm the transient behavior of the redox reactive zone, whose variation is consistent with the fluctuation of the groundwater level. Also, a strong decrease in NO3- concentrations could be observed. This corresponds to changes over depthin both the sulfateconcentration and δ34S-SO42- signatures, whichconfirms the presence of autotrophic denitrification using sulfur as an electron donor. Moreover, a hydraulic model coupled with a heat transport model was set up for the estimation over depth of water fluxes, water content, and temperatures. In combination with the monitored concentrations, this allows us to estimate solute fluxes.


The key point is the automation because manual processes are too lengthy and costly to be conducted at CSP scale. Automation means CSPs can perform test and service assurance activities to a greater extent and they can do so in a much more efficient way.


In our case, the Netrounds active test and assurance platform was originally built as software with no hardware legacy, but other virtualised variants of traditional, hardware-based testing solutions will require manual configuration steps. Manual configuration is fine for a proof of concept but for commercial roll-out all the steps must be automated, everything from deploying test agents in the NFVI (NFV Infrastructure), making them available for testing, triggering the tests using an API (application programming interface), retrieving the results, and even un-deploying them when done.


Improving the analytical correlation between passive test and active test data is helpful in enabling CSPs to make greater sense out of the passive data. For example, if you are passively monitoring virtual network functions (VNFs) and devices such as the central processing unit (CPU) load and other metrics as part of an end-to-end service, just making sense of the data and how it affects the end user experience is next to impossible. However, if you complement it with active monitoring you can start correlating the active with the passive and see, for example, that service quality issues started at the same time as when the CPU load increased. This enables you to scale up CPU capacity and then make sure, with an active solution, that has addressed the issue. If it does solve the problem, you can learn from it and become more proactive in future similar situations.


MF: Active testing plays a supporting role to CSPs achieving real agility, operational efficiency and customer experience in new, emerging networks. The automation of manual processes needs to happen and testing needs to change to reflect this.


Whetstone Candy Co., headquartered in St. Augustine, Fla., makes over 100 varieties of molded and specialty chocolates at a rate of 875 boxes of assorted products an hour. One of their most popular products is private-labeled chocolate macadamia nuts. When manual production methods could no longer keep up with higher demand, Whetstone turned to Hi-Speed Checkweigher for a machine that could handle the large variety of products at the increased production speeds dictated by their semi-automatic enrobing line. Because the variety of packages ranged from 4-oz to 5-lb boxes, with product in plastic trays or plastic wrapped individual pieces, the need for versatility was great."We didn't have a checkweigher on our line for molded macadamia nut chocolates. Because the product was molded and product size was controlled by the depth of the mold, there was very little variation. Spot checking worked well for us," explains Virginia Whetstone, company president. "But when we moved to an enrobed macadamia nut chocolate product, we had more potential for weight variation."At Whetstone, where several of the processing tasks are handled manually, full automation is still a while away. But their new semi-automatic processing line for enrobed products has made production substantially faster. "With this increased production speed, we'd have to spot check enrobed products every five minutes, which would mean an enormous increase in labor," explained Whetstone. The Cornerstone checkweigher was the reliable system we needed to keep us consistent while we continue to automate."On average, Whetstone changes the size and weight of the package running on its macadamia line twice a week. The Cornerstone unit was able to handle that challenge. "The Cornerstone is flexible and can handle each of our products. Our initial requirement was product profile memory and it has passed that test with flying colors," says Ms. Whetstone.The ability to provide a complete solution in weighing systems, including conveyors and material handling equipment, was also a crucial consideration. "Some of the alternative checkweighers we initially considered were not complete units," comments John Parr, Technical Engineer at Whetstone. "Incomplete units inevitably have installation glitches. We wanted something that we could easily install, leave alone, and it would do the job." Cornerstone checkweighers are designed for easy and accurate versatility while maintaining optimal production capacity. A built-in variable speed drive and quick-release guide rails provide for efficient product changeover. Users have the option to add or change modules when it is necessary to switch products or even locations without excessive downtime or cost. Photo courtesy of Hi-Speed CheckweigherCornerstone enhances product control with reliable transfer aids and diminishes product giveaway with precision weighing. Optional side transport and external transfer assemblies offer effortless and effective line integration. Chocolates vary slightly in size and weight, a characteristic that adds to the novelty of the Whetstone Company. Rigid checkweighing parameters do not allow for slight differences. "We don't want to give away product, but we don't want to sacrifice our originality either. Consequently, by modifying the checkweighing parameters, we've found a balance that satisfies both issues," Whetstone said.The Cornerstone has made the biggest difference on Whetstone's Sollich Enrobing line that handles eighteen different products, including Mauna Loa chocolate macadamia nut production. The enrobing line begins with a hopper of Macadamia nuts that drops the nuts through a nut feeder onto dots of chocolate. After the nuts are dispensed onto the chocolate dots, they are conveyed through the Sollich line to operators who manually adjust the number of nuts on each dot according to the specific product requirements. The half-completed chocolate macadamia nuts are then cooled on a water-chilled conveyor belt.Photo courtesy of Hi-Speed CheckweigherThe Sollich coater covers each dot with a thick layer of chocolate. Farther down the line, the patterned belt of the Latini Decorator simulates hand decorating on the warm candies to give them an enhanced appearance. A heater positioned between the Latini Decorator's belts prevents accumulation of chocolate on the belt to further assure sanitary, operator-less production. The chocolate decorator, mounted on the cooling belt, has simple speed and height adjustments to match the profile of the candies and the speed of the rest of the line. Conveyed next through a 30-ft cooling tunnel, the chocolates arrive in the packaging area where they are manually packed into plastic trays. Two AE Randles cartoning machines form boxes from carton blanks that are conveyed to the packaging area for simultaneous arrival with the chocolates. Filled boxes are covered with a pad and conveyed through the Cornerstone checkweigher and a metal detector. Cornerstone is a gentle machine, handling open boxes weighed at approximately 50 packages per minute. A Marden-Edwards cellophane machine overwraps the completed packages and they are manually packed into shipping cases. Whetstone Candy Co. plans on automating as they expand and grow. "Hi-Speed Checkweigher's Cornerstone is another step toward automating our packaging process," concluded Whetstone. "Its versatility will enable us to expand our product lines as we develop our in-house technology and its reliability allows us to tackle other production and packaging goals." Contacts:Hi-Speed Checkweigher Co., 5 Barr Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850. Tel: 800-836- 0836 or 607-257-6000. Fax: 607-257-6396. Dave Nathaniel, Marketing ManagerWhetstone Candy, 2 Coke Rd., St. Augustine, FL 32086. Tel: 904-825-1700; Fax: 904-824-0436. Virginia Whetstone, PresidentLatini Products Co., 893 Industrial Dr., Elmhurst, IL 60126. Tel: 630-834-7666; Fax: 630-834-9473. Leo Latini, PresidentBy Pam Ahlberg


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